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Duration-based IOA algorithms evaluate the concordance between the timing data of two observers. These measures consist of (a) the total duration and (b) the average duration per presence. Table 3 summarizes the strengths of both algorithms. Consider as a common example of a time-based IOA the hypothetical data flow shown in Figure 3, in which two independent observers record the duration of a target response across four deposits. All event-based IOA algorithms have in common the analysis of concordance on frequency counts and event records. These measures consist of (a) total number, b) partial concordance in intervals, c) exact match, and (d) DOA trial by trial algorithms. After a brief overview of each event-based algorithm, Table 1 summarizes the strengths of the four event-based algorithms for behavioral reliability analysis considerations. Suppose a research team collects frequency data for a target response of 15 observations of 1 m (see Figure 1). House, A.E., House, B.J. &Campbell, M.B. Measures of interobserver agreement: Calculation formulas and distribution effects. Journal of Behavioral Assessment 3, 37-57 (1981). doi.org/10.1007/BF01321350 Sloat, K.M.C.

A comment on “Correction for distortion in a method of calculating the inter-observer agreement”, unpublished document. Kamehomeha Early Education Program, 1978. This is not a very strict agreement procedure, as a total number of 100% IOA could result from two observers recording totally different case observers of targeted responses under the same 15m observation. Observe 1 records three instances of the target response during the first 3 meters (one per minute) of its observation, two instances during minute 4 and misses all other instances for the remaining 12 m. During the same hypothetical observation, Observer 2 missed all three instances during minutes 1 to 3, records one response instance at minute 4, but records four instances at minute 15. Although these are totally different events, the total number of IOA that results from them would still be 100%. Johnson, S.M., Christensen, A., and Bellamy, G. T. Evaluation of family intervention through unobtrusive audio recordings: Experiences in “bugging children”. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1976,9, 213-219. Total duration IOA.

Like the total number of AOIs for event-based data, the total duration of the IOA provides a relatively insensitive measure to observer consent. . . .